So today’s topic is AURORA but waits a minute, what is Aurora? Is this the name of an object?
No, It is not the name of any human or any other thing, but it is a mysterious light that looks exactly like you see in the picture below.
If you live near the north pole, then it is called an aurora borealis or northern lights and if you live near the south pole, then it is called an aurora australis or the southern lights. Hence it is also called polar lights. So basically you can see these beautiful lights only when you live near north pole or the south pole.
Most of these lights are green in color but you can also see them in pink or red color.
But why these lights can be seen near the north pole or south pole only?
Formation of Aurora :
Now let’s start discussing the formation of these lights. So what’s the reason behind this?
The reason for the formation of these lights is our sun.
First of all, we have to know that the sun not only sends us light but also other energy and particles, and our earth protects us with the help of its strong magnetic field (also called magnetosphere). Iron is found in the core of our earth, which helps in making a magnetic field of the earth.
We know that our sun is a huge fireball. In which 1 million tonnes of matter are blasted in every second and the energy and particles from it spread in every possible direction and some of that energy and small particles start moving towards Earth (which is also called solar winds) which travel at the speed of 400 km/s. There are charged particles present in the solar winds and our earth stops these solar winds with the help of its magnetic field. When the magnetic field of the sun sends solar winds massively towards the earth and when these solar winds hit the magnetic field of the earth, then some of them successfully enters the earth. These solar winds enter from the weak parts of the earth and the earth has only two weak parts – North Pole and South pole.
When these solar winds collide with the gas found in the earth’s atmosphere, then aurora is formed and we see that colorful lights in the sky.
When solar winds collide with the oxygen gas then the red or green light is formed and when they collide with the nitrogen gas then purple or blue light is formed.
For this reason, we get to see that amazing view of strange lights and which is called POLAR LIGHTS or AURORA.
So just because of only two weak points of the earth (north pole or south pole), these lights can be seen only near the north pole or south pole.